A new species of polychaete, Stratiodrilus vilae, epizoic on Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) and P. defossus Faxon, 1898, is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The new species has one pair of long, anal, conical ventral lobes, one on each side of the anus, claspers in the males, and one pair of tubercles in each of the posterior locomotor appendages; and the jaw apparatus not reaching the limit between the head and the first segment.
Iheringia. Série Zoologia. Porto Alegre. N. 90 (maio 2001), p. 37-44