We present a theory that allows us to accurately calculate the distribution functions and the emittance growth of a thermal charged-particle beam after it relaxes to equilibrium. The theory can be used to obtain the fraction of particles, which will evaporate from the beam to form a halo. The calculated emittance growth is found to be in excellent agreement with the simulations.
Applied physics letters. New York. Vol. 95, no. 17 (Oct. 2009), 173501, 3 p.